Foods and drinks that contain soluble fiber form a gel-like material when they make contact with water in your stomach, thereby acting as an appetite suppressant. Soluble fiber is found in prunes, oats, barley, bran, apples, flaxseeds, and citrus fruits.
However, insoluble fiber also was found to decrease appetite in a study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2007. In a crossover design study, healthy men were provided high-fiber cereal with 33 grams (g) insoluble fiber, low-fiber cereal, white bread, and water control after an overnight fast. The treatments had similar energy, macronutrient content, volume, and weight. The high-fiber cereal with 33 g insoluble fiber reduced appetite, decreased food intake, and reduced glycemic response to a meal consumed 75 minutes later.
Low caloric density
Foods with very low caloric density, such as asparagus or loose-leaf lettuce, can help a person to feel full while taking in very few calories. This is the premise that the volumetrics diet plan is based on and is also what the infamous ‘cabbage soup diet’ relied on to spur quick weight loss. In fact, any low-calorie, broth-based soup will help you feel full without many calories.
Acetic acid and cinnamon
In one study, the combination of acetic acid, which is found in red wine vinegar, and cinnamon significantly increased satiety and reduced blood glucose concentration.
Foods that contain the unsaturated fat oleic acid, which is found in olive oil, nuts, and avocados, help to suppress appetite. However, you still have to keep an eye on portion size because these foods are rich in both nutrients and calories!
Researchers at Purdue University gave 25 people who were not overweight their preferred level of cayenne pepper for 6 weeks (those who did not like red pepper preferred 0.3 g compared to regular spice users who preferred 1.8 g). Red pepper consumption did increase core body temperature and burnt more calories. Those individuals who did not consume red pepper regularly experienced a decrease in appetite for fatty, salty, and sweet foods. The study found that red pepper consumed in noncapsule form was effective. The burn is what leads to the rise in body temperature, increased metabolism, and appetite suppression.
Studies show that individuals who eat eggs rather than breakfast cereal or bagels report increased satiety and consume fewer calories later in the day, even if the meals contain the same amounts of calories, fat, protein, and carbohydrate. It is thought that the protein quality is what matters – eggs are the gold standard for protein quality. When compared to subjects given eggs for breakfast, those who received a bagel had higher plasma glucose, increased ghrelin levels, and increased insulin levels.
In an animal study done on mice, genistein injections decreased adipose weight and adipocyte circumference at higher doses. Juveniles fed 500 to 1500 parts per million (ppm) of dietary genistein had dose-responsive decreases in fat pad weight of 37% to 57%, when compared to controls (300 ppm of genistein did not cause decreases). Some research also has found that genistein decreases appetite and food intake.
In a randomized, controlled trial, women who generally consumed a low-calcium diet participated in a 6-month energy-restricted program and received either milk supplementation or an isoenergetic placebo. Both groups showed a significant weight loss, but the women who received the milk supplementation had less of an increase in desire to eat and hunger. Milk supplementation attenuates the orexigenic (appetite stimulant) effect of body weight loss.